Characteristics of magnetic–levitation system are studied using dynamic models that include motion–dependent lift, drag, slip, and roll motions. In addition, the contact constraint between the vehicle and the track is modeled using the penalty method. Unknown numerical parameters are identified using the optimization technique. The numerical tests are focused on the damping characteristic, stability in lifting and slip motions, the lifting efficiency compared with the concentric force, and contact with track.
Kim, N.H., Ge, L., (September, 2006), " Modeling of Electrodynamic Suspension Systems," ASME 2006 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, September 10-13, 2006, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.